Article Index





Monna Vanna




The heritage of Jefferson, Quincy Adams, old John Adams, Jackson, van Buren is HERE, NOW in the Italian peninsula at the beginning of fascist second decennio, not in Massachusetts or Delaware. 

To understand this we must have at least a rudimentary knowledge of the first fifty years of United States history AND some first hand knowledge of Italy 1922-33 or 1915-33, or still better some knowledge of 160 years of American democracy and of Italy for as long as you like. 

Ezra Pound. Jefferson and/or Mussolini. Fascism as I have Seen It. London: Nott, 1935. 12.


Pound’s principle of historical explanation is neither Spenglerian nor Marxist; it is Douglasite. On Douglasite grounds the process of history can only be understood when the place and function of money and credit in society is understood. However, Douglas’s economic theories were not devised to explain the past; his interest was in the present and the immediate future. The notion that great historical events can be explained by the touchstone of sound monetary principles is excessively simplistic. Commitment to such a view obliges one to account for wars and economics or political collapse by ascribing incredible stupidity or boundless malice to the leaders of nations. Pound does not shrink from this necessity. 

Leon Surette, A Light from Eleusis, 166.


Note on the colours used in the table above: green - link to the poem text and annotation; orange - inactive link.






  1. Miyake, Akiko. A Thematic and Structural Unity in Ezra Pound’s Eleven New Cantos. American Literature Society of Japan, 1971.
  2. Farahbakhsh, Alireza and Zeinab Heidary Moghaddam. Dominant Themes in Ezra Pound’s 1930s and 1940s Cantos (Cantos XXXI-LXXXIV). Lambert Academic Publishing, 2010. 
  3. Lobo, Julius.  "Documentary Poetry and American Modernism from the DePion to World War 2."  Diss. The Pennsylvania State U, 2011 [2. Ezra Pound and Louis Zukofsky's Documentary Histories of the United States in the Eleven New Cantos and "A"-8, 46-80].  Free online



  1. Barker, G. “Mr. Pound’s New Cantos.” Criterion 14 (July 1935) 649-651. In Ezra Pound. (The Critical Heritage). Ed. Eric Homberger. Abingdon: Routledge, 1972. 297-299.
  2. Dasenbrock, Reed Way: “Jefferson and/or Adams: A Shifting Mirror for Mussolini in the Middle Cantos.” ELH 55.2 (1988): 505-526.
  3. Eiselein, Gregory. “Jefferson in the Thirties: Pound’s Use of Historical Documents in Eleven New Cantos.Clio. 19.1 (1989): 31-40. Print. 
  4. Fender, Stephen. “Ezra Pound and the Words off the Page; Historical Allusions in Some American Long Poems.” The Yearbook of English Studies  8 (1978): 95–108. 
  5. Lauber, John. “Pound’s Cantos: A Fascist Epic.” American Studies 12.1 (April 1978): 3-21.
  6. Redman, Tim. “An Epic Is a Hypertext Containing Poetry. Eleven New Cantos 31-40.” A Poem Containing History. Textual Studies in The Cantos. Ed. Lawrence S. Rainey. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997. 117-150. Print. 



  1. Adams, Stephen J. “The Cantos: Eleven New Cantos XXXI-XLI.” The Ezra Pound Encyclopedia. Eds. D. Tryphonopoulos and Stephen J. Adams. Westport, CT.: Greenwood Press, 2005. 30-33.
  2. Alexander, Michael. “Cantos 18-71.” The Poetic Achievement of Ezra Pound. London: Faber, 1979. 170-77.
  3. Cookson, William. “Cantos XXXI-XLI.” A Guide to The Cantos of Ezra Pound. London: Anvil, 2009. 47-59.
  4. Coyle, Michael. “Epic Inclusiveness and the Innovations of Eleven New Cantos.Ezra Pound, Popular Genres and the Discourse of Culture. University Park: The Pennsylvania State UP, 1995. 79-120.
  5. Davie, Donald. Ezra Pound. The Poet as Sculptor. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1964. 135-153.
  6. Dekker, George. Sailing after Knowledge. The Cantos of Ezra Pound. London: Routledge, 1963. 171-2.
  7. Flory, Wendy. Ezra Pound and The Cantos: A Record of Struggle. New Haven: Yale UP, 1980. [Section: 139-142.]
  8. Furia, Philip. “Presidential Correspondence.” Pound's Cantos Declassified. University Park and London: The Pennsylvania State UP, 1984. 51-64.
  9. Liebregts, Peter. “Cantos XXXI-XLVI.” Ezra Pound and Neoplatonism. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 2004. 200-228.
  10. Makin, Peter. “Commentary: Cantos XXXI-XLI (‘Jefferson: Nuevo Mundo’).” Pound's Cantos. London: Allen & Unwin, 173-95.
  11. Marsh, Alec. Ezra Pound. London: Reaktion, 2011. [Section: 129-132.]
  12. Moody, David A. “Making Music of History: ‘Cantos 31-41.’” Ezra Pound: Poet. A Portrait of the Man and His Work. II: The Epic Years 1921-1939. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. 159-81. Print. 
  13. Pearlman, Daniel. “Attention to the Times and Seasons.” In The Barb of Time: On the Unity of Ezra Pound’s Cantos. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1969. 135-71. 
  14. Read, Forrest. ’76: One World and the Cantos of Ezra Pound. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981. 198-226.
  15. Stock, Noel. “Nuevo Mundo 1934.” Reading the Cantos. A Study of Meaning in Ezra Pound. New York: Pantheon Books, 1966. 22-34.
  16. Surette, Leon. A Light from Eleusis. A Study of Ezra Pound's Cantos. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979. 134-41.
  17. Ten Eyck, David. “Pound’s Documentary Poetics in Eleven New Cantos and Fifth Decad of Cantos.” Ezra Pound’s Adams Cantos. London: Bloomsbury, 2012. 51-54.
  18. Sicari, Stephen. “Eleven New Cantos.”  Pound’s Epic Ambition. Dante and the Modern World. New York: SUNY Press, 1991. 82-97. 
  19. Trotter, David. “Form-Sense and Dictator Sense.” The Making of the Reader: Language and Subjectivity in Modern American English and Irish Poetry. London: Macmillan, 1984. 82-103.
  20. Whittier-Ferguson, John. “Ezra Pound: Final Primers.” In Framing Pieces. Designs of the Gloss in Joyce, Woolf, and Pound. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996. 115-150. 
  21. Wilhelm, J. J. Ezra Pound The Tragic Years. 1925-1972. University Park: The Pennsylvania State UP, 1994. 97-102.